net Module

Since Origin / Contributor Maintainer Source
2014-12-22 Zeroday PhoeniX net.c

TLS operations was moved to the TLS module

Constants

Constants to be used in other functions: net.TCP, net.UDP

net.createConnection()

Creates a TCP client.

Syntax

net.createConnection()

Returns

  • net.socket sub module

See also

net.createServer(), net.createUDPSocket(), tls.createConnection()

net.createServer()

Creates a TCP listening socket (a server).

Syntax

net.createServer(timeout)

Parameters

  • timeout: seconds until disconnecting an inactive client; 1~28'800 seconds, 30 sec by default.

Returns

  • net.server sub module

Example

net.createServer(30) -- 30s timeout

See also

net.createConnection(), net.createUDPSocket()

net.createUDPSocket()

Creates an UDP socket.

Syntax

net.createUDPSocket()

Parameters

none

Returns

net.udpsocket sub module

See also

net.createConnection()

net.ifinfo()

Return information about a network interface, specified by index.

Syntax

net.ifinfo(if_index)

Parameters

  • if_index the interface index; on ESP8266, 0 is the wifi client (STA) and 1 is the wifi AP.

Returns

nil if the given if_index does not correspond to an interface. Otherwise, a table containing ...

  • ip, netmask, and gateway configured for this interface, as dotted quad strings or nil if none is set.

  • if DHCP was used to configure the interface, then dhcp will be a table containing...

  • server_ip -- the DHCP server itself, as a dotted quad

  • client_ip -- the IP address suggested for the client; likely, this equals ip above, unless the configuration has been overridden.

  • ntp_server -- the NTP server suggested by the DHCP server.

DNS servers are not tracked per-interface in LwIP and, as such, are not reported here; use net.dns:getdnsserver().

Example

print(net.ifinfo(0).dhcp.ntp_server) will show the NTP server suggested by the DHCP server.

net.multicastJoin()

Join multicast group.

Syntax

net.multicastJoin(if_ip, multicast_ip)

Parameters

  • if_ip string containing the interface ip to join the multicast group. "any" or "" affects all interfaces.
  • multicast_ip of the group to join

Returns

nil

net.multicastLeave()

Leave multicast group.

Syntax

net.multicastLeave(if_ip, multicast_ip)

Parameters

  • if_ip string containing the interface ip to leave the multicast group. "any" or "" affects all interfaces.
  • multicast_ip of the group to leave

Returns

nil

net.server Module

net.server:close()

Closes the server.

Syntax

net.server.close()

Parameters

none

Returns

nil

Example

-- creates a server
sv = net.createServer(net.TCP, 30)
-- closes the server
sv:close()

See also

net.createServer()

net.server:listen()

Listen on port from IP address.

Syntax

net.server.listen([port],[ip],function(net.socket))

Parameters

  • port port number, can be omitted (random port will be chosen)
  • ip IP address string, can be omitted
  • function(net.socket) callback function, pass to caller function as param if a connection is created successfully

Returns

nil

Example

-- server listens on 80, if data received, print data to console and send "hello world" back to caller
-- 30s time out for a inactive client
sv = net.createServer(net.TCP, 30)

function receiver(sck, data)
  print(data)
  sck:close()
end

if sv then
  sv:listen(80, function(conn)
    conn:on("receive", receiver)
    conn:send("hello world")
  end)
end

See also

net.createServer()

net.server:getaddr()

Returns server local address/port.

Syntax

net.server.getaddr()

Parameters

none

Returns

port, ip (or nil, nil if not listening)

See also

net.server:listen()

net.socket Module

net.socket:close()

Closes socket.

Syntax

close()

Parameters

none

Returns

nil

See also

net.createServer()

net.socket:connect()

Connect to a remote server.

Syntax

connect(port, ip|domain)

Parameters

  • port port number
  • ip IP address or domain name string

Returns

nil

See also

net.socket:on()

net.socket:dns()

Provides DNS resolution for a hostname.

Syntax

dns(domain, function(net.socket, ip))

Parameters

  • domain domain name
  • function(net.socket, ip) callback function. The first parameter is the socket, the second parameter is the IP address as a string.

If a callback c is provided, it is equivalent to having called :on("dns", c) on this socket; this callback will, hereafter, receive any pending resolution results recieved for this socket!

Returns

nil

Example

sk = net.createConnection(net.TCP, 0)
sk:dns("www.nodemcu.com", function(conn, ip) print(ip) end)
sk = nil

See also

net.createServer()

net.socket:getpeer()

Retrieve port and ip of remote peer.

Syntax

getpeer()

Parameters

none

Returns

port, ip (or nil, nil if not connected)

net.socket:getaddr()

Retrieve local port and ip of socket.

Syntax

getaddr()

Parameters

none

Returns

port, ip (or nil, nil if not connected)

net.socket:hold()

Throttle data reception by placing a request to block the TCP receive function. This request is not effective immediately, Espressif recommends to call it while reserving 5*1460 bytes of memory.

Syntax

hold()

Parameters

none

Returns

nil

See also

net.socket:unhold()

net.socket:on()

Register callback functions for specific events.

Syntax

on(event, function())

Parameters

  • event string, which can be "connection", "reconnection", "disconnection", "receive" or "sent"
  • function(net.socket[, string]) callback function. Can be nil to remove callback.

The first parameter of callback is the socket.

  • If event is "receive", the second parameter is the received data as string.
  • If event is "disconnection" or "reconnection", the second parameter is error code.

If reconnection event is specified, disconnection receives only "normal close" events.

Otherwise, all connection errors (with normal close) passed to disconnection event.

Returns

nil

Example

srv = net.createConnection(net.TCP, 0)
srv:on("receive", function(sck, c) print(c) end)
-- Wait for connection before sending.
srv:on("connection", function(sck, c)
  -- 'Connection: close' rather than 'Connection: keep-alive' to have server
  -- initiate a close of the connection after final response (frees memory
  -- earlier here), https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7230#section-6.6
  sck:send("GET /get HTTP/1.1\r\nHost: httpbin.org\r\nConnection: close\r\nAccept: */*\r\n\r\n")
end)
srv:connect(80,"httpbin.org")

Note

The receive event is fired for every network frame! Hence, if the data sent to the device exceeds 1460 bytes (derived from Ethernet frame size) it will fire more than once. There may be other situations where incoming data is split across multiple frames (e.g. HTTP POST with multipart/form-data). You need to manually buffer the data and find means to determine if all data was received.

local buffer = nil

srv:on("receive", function(sck, c)
  if buffer == nil then
    buffer = c
  else
    buffer = buffer .. c
  end
end)
-- throttling could be implemented using socket:hold()
-- example: https://github.com/nodemcu/nodemcu-firmware/blob/master/lua_examples/pcm/play_network.lua#L83

See also

net.socket:send()

Sends data to remote peer.

Syntax

send(string[, function(sent)])

sck:send(data, fnA) is functionally equivalent to sck:send(data) sck:on("sent", fnA).

Parameters

  • string data in string which will be sent to server
  • function(sent) callback function for sending string

Returns

nil

Note

Multiple consecutive send() calls aren't guaranteed to work (and often don't) as network requests are treated as separate tasks by the SDK. Instead, subscribe to the "sent" event on the socket and send additional data (or close) in that callback. See #730 for details.

Example

srv = net.createServer(net.TCP)

function receiver(sck, data)
  local response = {}

  -- if you're sending back HTML over HTTP you'll want something like this instead
  -- local response = {"HTTP/1.0 200 OK\r\nServer: NodeMCU on ESP8266\r\nContent-Type: text/html\r\n\r\n"}

  response[#response + 1] = "lots of data"
  response[#response + 1] = "even more data"
  response[#response + 1] = "e.g. content read from a file"

  -- sends and removes the first element from the 'response' table
  local function send(localSocket)
    if #response > 0 then
      localSocket:send(table.remove(response, 1))
    else
      localSocket:close()
      response = nil
    end
  end

  -- triggers the send() function again once the first chunk of data was sent
  sck:on("sent", send)

  send(sck)
end

srv:listen(80, function(conn)
  conn:on("receive", receiver)
end)

If you do not or can not keep all the data you send back in memory at one time (remember that response is an aggregation) you may use explicit callbacks instead of building up a table like so:

sck:send(header, function()
  local data1 = "some large chunk of dynamically loaded data"
  sck:send(data1, function()
    local data2 = "even more dynamically loaded data"
    sck:send(data2, function(sk)
      sk:close()
    end)
  end)
end)

See also

net.socket:on()

net.socket:ttl()

Changes or retrieves Time-To-Live value on socket.

Syntax

ttl([ttl])

Parameters

  • ttl (optional) new time-to-live value

Returns

current / new ttl value

Example

sk = net.createConnection(net.TCP, 0)
sk:connect(80, '192.168.1.1')
sk:ttl(1) -- restrict frames to single subnet

See also

net.createConnection()

net.socket:unhold()

Unblock TCP receiving data by revocation of a preceding hold().

Syntax

unhold()

Parameters

none

Returns

nil

See also

net.socket:hold()

net.udpsocket Module

Remember that in contrast to TCP UDP is connectionless. Therefore, there is a minor but natural mismatch as for TCP/UDP functions in this module. While you would call net.createConnection() for TCP it is net.createUDPSocket() for UDP.

Other points worth noting:

  • UDP sockets do not have a connection callback for the listen function.
  • UDP sockets do not have a connect function. Remote IP and port thus need to be defined in send().
  • UDP socket's receive callback receives port/ip after the data argument.

net.udpsocket:close()

Closes UDP socket.

The syntax and functional identical to net.socket:close().

net.udpsocket:listen()

Listen on port from IP address.

The syntax and functional similar to net.server:listen(), but callback parameter is not provided.

net.udpsocket:on()

Register callback functions for specific events.

The syntax and functional similar to net.socket:on(). However, only "receive", "sent" and "dns" are supported events.

Note

The receive callback receives port and ip after the data argument.

net.udpsocket:send()

Sends data to specific remote peer.

Syntax

send(port, ip, data)

Parameters

  • port remote socket port
  • ip remote socket IP
  • data the payload to send

Returns

nil

Example

udpSocket = net.createUDPSocket()
udpSocket:listen(5000)
udpSocket:on("receive", function(s, data, port, ip)
    print(string.format("received '%s' from %s:%d", data, ip, port))
    s:send(port, ip, "echo: " .. data)
end)
port, ip = udpSocket:getaddr()
print(string.format("local UDP socket address / port: %s:%d", ip, port))

On *nix systems that can then be tested by issuing

echo -n "foo" | nc -w1 -u <device-IP-address> 5000

net.udpsocket:dns()

Provides DNS resolution for a hostname.

The syntax and functional identical to net.socket:dns().

net.udpsocket:getaddr()

Retrieve local port and ip of socket.

The syntax and functional identical to net.socket:getaddr().

net.udpsocket:ttl()

Changes or retrieves Time-To-Live value on socket.

The syntax and functional identical to net.socket:ttl().

net.dns Module

net.dns.getdnsserver()

Gets the IP address of the DNS server used to resolve hostnames.

Syntax

net.dns.getdnsserver(dns_index)

Parameters

dns_index which DNS server to get (range 0~1)

Returns

IP address (string) of DNS server

Example

print(net.dns.getdnsserver(0)) -- 208.67.222.222
print(net.dns.getdnsserver(1)) -- nil

net.dns.setdnsserver("8.8.8.8", 0)
net.dns.setdnsserver("192.168.1.252", 1)

print(net.dns.getdnsserver(0)) -- 8.8.8.8
print(net.dns.getdnsserver(1)) -- 192.168.1.252

See also

net.dns:setdnsserver()

net.dns.resolve()

Resolve a hostname to an IP address. Doesn't require a socket like net.socket.dns().

Syntax

net.dns.resolve(host, function(sk, ip))

Parameters

  • host hostname to resolve
  • function(sk, ip) callback called when the name was resolved. sk is always nil

Returns

nil but may raise errors for severe network stack issues (e.g., out of DNS query table slots)

Example

net.dns.resolve("www.google.com", function(sk, ip)
    if (ip == nil) then print("DNS fail!") else print(ip) end
end)

See also

net.socket:dns()

net.dns.setdnsserver()

Sets the IP of the DNS server used to resolve hostnames. Default: resolver1.opendns.com (208.67.222.222). You can specify up to 2 DNS servers.

Syntax

net.dns.setdnsserver(dns_ip_addr, dns_index)

Parameters

  • dns_ip_addr IP address of a DNS server
  • dns_index which DNS server to set (range 0~1). Hence, it supports max. 2 servers.

Returns

nil

See also

net.dns:getdnsserver()

net.ping()

Pings a server. A callback function is called when response is or is not received. Summary statistics can be retrieved via the second callback.

The function can be disabled by commenting NET_PING_ENABLE macro in user_config.h when more compact build is needed.

Syntax

net.ping(domain, [count], callback_received, [callback_sent])

Parameters

  • domain destination domain or IP address
  • count number of ping packets to be sent (optional parameter, default value is 4)
  • callback_received(bytes, ipaddr, seqno, rtt) callback function which is invoked when response is received where

    • bytes number of bytes received from destination server (0 means no response)
    • ipaddr destination server IP address
    • seqno ICMP sequence number
    • rtt round trip time in ms If domain name cannot be resolved callback is invoked with bytes parameter equal to 0 (i.e. no response) and nil values for all other parameters.
  • callback_sent(ipaddr, total_count, timeout_count, total_bytes, total_time) callback function which is invoked when response is received where

    • ipaddrstr destination server IP address
    • total_count total number of packets sent
    • timeout_count total number of packets lost (not received)
    • total_bytes total number of bytes received from destination server
    • total_time total time to perform ping

Returns

nil

Example

net.ping("www.nodemcu.com", function (b, ip, sq, tm) 
    if ip then print(("%d bytes from %s, icmp_seq=%d time=%dms"):format(b, ip, sq, tm)) else print("Invalid IP address") end 
  end)
net.ping("www.nodemcu.com", 10, function (b, ip, sq, tm) 
    if ip then print(("%d bytes from %s, icmp_seq=%d time=%dms"):format(b, ip, sq, tm)) else print("Invalid IP address") end 
  end)
net.ping("www.nodemcu.com", function (b, ip, sq, tm) 
    if ip then print(("%d bytes from %s, icmp_seq=%d time=%dms"):format(b, ip, sq, tm)) else print("Invalid IP address") end 
  end,
  function (ip, tc, toc, tb, tt) 
    print(("--- %s ping statistics ---\n%d packets transmitted, %d received, %d%% packet loss, time %dms"):format(ip, tc, tc-toc, toc/tc*100, tt)) 
  end)

Multiple pings can start in short sequence thought if the new ping overlaps with the previous one the first stops receiving answers, i.e.

function ping_resp(b, ip, sq, tm)
  print(string.format("%d bytes from %s, icmp_seq=%d time=%dms", b, ip, sq, tm))
end

net.ping("8.8.8.8", 4, ping_resp)
tmr.create():alarm(1000, tmr.ALARM_SINGLE, function() net.ping("8.8.4.4", 4, ping_resp) end)

gives

32 bytes from 8.8.8.8, icmp_seq=9 time=14ms
32 bytes from 8.8.8.8, icmp_seq=10 time=9ms
32 bytes from 8.8.4.4, icmp_seq=11 time=6ms
32 bytes from 8.8.4.4, icmp_seq=13 time=12ms
0 bytes from 8.8.8.8, icmp_seq=0 time=0ms -- no more answers received
32 bytes from 8.8.4.4, icmp_seq=15 time=16ms
0 bytes from 8.8.8.8, icmp_seq=0 time=0ms -- no more answers received
32 bytes from 8.8.4.4, icmp_seq=16 time=7ms

net.cert Module

This part gone to the TLS module, link kept for backward compatibility.